Physical pilots realisation
The aim of the WP is to validate the results obtained in the simulation platform, by demonstrating the highest-score TSO-DSO coordination schemes in Italy, in Spain and in Denmark. For that purpose, a physical demonstration project (pilot) will be set up in each country, where the selected TSO-DSO interaction scheme will be implemented and evaluated to assess whether the results in the lab environment actually correspond to real-life performance.
The future pan-European market for ancillary services will be composed of different products, including voltage regulation and frequency regulation among others, as current national markets are today. In most of the cases, service providers are the big generation units directly connected at transmission level. Big consumers and distribution companies can also act as ancillary service providers, by reducing their consumption, establishing load shedding plans or developing demand side programs. Generally, there is a minimum bid size to be eligible to participate in the provision of ancillary services (in the order of MWs), which blocks the small scale units to participate in this market.
Therefore, the only way for distributed generation (DG) and demand side management (DSM) to provide ancillary services is by means of aggregation. However, if the aggregation of DG and DSM is accomplished without the supervision of the corresponding DSO, these processes may interfere with normal distribution grid operations.
In order to avoid such undesired impact of DG and DSM in DSO’s activities, the DSO itself could act as the aggregator of small scale flexibility providers, i.e. become a single unit to bid into the market. Under this approach, all the actions by DG and DSM are checked by the DSO before the services are delivered to the TSO. Moreover, the regulated nature of the DSO allows regulatory bodies to ensure that the procurement of flexibility is made on a non-discriminatory and transparent way.
In order to cover a scope as broad as possible, the three pilots will demonstrate different features of the TSO-DSO coordination schemes identified in previous WPs. In particular, pilot A will focus on the TSO-DSO interface and, more specifically, in the mechanisms to provide ancillary services (voltage regulation, frequency regulation…) to the TSO from the DSO and the information exchanges required. The other two pilots will be focused on the DSO-demand aggregator link, as it will demonstrate how the DSO can consolidate the flexibility provided by demand and DG aggregator to procure the ancillary services to the TSO. In Pilot B, the demand flexibility of residential consumers (swimming pools) will be used, while Pilot C will use the demand flexibility of commercial consumers (radio base stations for mobile phones).